Monkeypox: In Quest of Effective Vaccines


  • Abida Sultana Molecular Pharmacology and Herbal Drug Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
  • Arifa Sultana Molecular Pharmacology and Herbal Drug Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
  • Nusrat Jahan Shawon Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
  • Shaila Kabir Molecular Pharmacology and Herbal Drug Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
  • Abu Asad Chowdhury Molecular Pharmacology and Herbal Drug Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
  • Md. Shah Amran Molecular Pharmacology and Herbal Drug Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh



Monkeypox, ACAM2000, JYNNEOS, MVA-BN, Orthopox virus, Tecovirimat, Brincidofovir


Purpose: The main objective of the study includes various aspects of monkeypox, its biology and transmutability that are relevant for risk assessment and preparedness for a monkeypox epidemic, with an emphasis on recent progress in the understanding the virus host range, evolutionary potential, neutralization targets, and promising treatment options.

Methods: Published research including the origin, epidemiology, pathophysiology, signs & symptoms, transmission route, therapy, and vaccinations of monkeypox were carefully reviewed from various servers like Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, ResearchGate and others. Primary searches included the keywords 'monkeypox', 'Orthopox virus', 'etiology of monkeypox', 'symptoms', 'transmission', 'possibility', and 'antiviral medications' Secondary searches used 'vaccine for monkeypox', 'possible drug candidate', 'antimicrobial', 'therapeutic impact', 'pathogenesis', 'prevention', We examined relevant search results.

Results: Human monkeypox is a rare viral zoonosis indigenous to central and western Africa that has re-emerged in several nations, threatening public health. The significant number of human monkeypox cases and lack of direct ties to endemic nations after May 2022 raises worries about a probable shift in transmission pattern that might represent a wider global danger. Due to monkeypox's similarity to smallpox, smallpox vaccinations are a potential therapy for this epidemic. Antiviral medicines, vaccinia immune globulin, DNA polymerase inhibitors, anti-poxvirus monoclonal antibodies, nucleoside analogue compounds, and reverse transcriptase inhibitors are being researched to treat monkeypox. Before discussing treatment alternatives, monkeypox and smallpox differential diagnostic processes must be addressed.

Conclusion: A comprehensive understanding of the virulence and transmissibility of human monkeypox is crucial, yet epidemiological limits have rendered it infrequent and self-limiting. Further extensive research is highly recommended to find efficient vaccines against monkeypox before it’s too late.


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How to Cite

Sultana, A., Sultana, A., Jahan Shawon, N. ., Kabir, S. ., Asad Chowdhury, A., & Amran, M. S. (2024). Monkeypox: In Quest of Effective Vaccines. Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 14, 11–24.