Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS <p>IGJPS is an international journal online. It is interdisciplinary and aims to bring together different approaches for a diverse readership all over the world in pharmaceutical sciences. This Journal publishes original research work that contributes significantly to further the scientific knowledge in pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences (Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmacognosy, Natural Product Research, Pharmaceutics, Novel Drug Delivery, Biopharmaceutics, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry, Computational Chemistry and Molecular Drug Design, Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics and Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology of Pharmaceutical Interest). The Journal publishes original research work either as a Full Research Paper or as a Short Communication. Review Articles on a current topic in the said fields are also considered for publication by the Journal.</p> iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation en-US Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2249-1023 Study to Assess the Efficacy of Wheatgrass Juice Therapy Intervention on Haemoglobin Level in Adolescent Anaemic Females https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/56 <p><strong>Background and Objectives:</strong> Wheatgrass juice is rich in various minerals like iron, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, antioxidants like beta carotene, and insoluble dietary fibers. It has a significant amount of medicinal value with a rich source of Chlorophyll. The chemical structure of Chlorophyll is almost identical to Haemoglobin. The only difference is that magnesium is a central element in chlorophyll and iron in Haemoglobin. The vital component of wheatgrass helps in building Haemoglobin in our body. Thus, it is used therapeutically for various clinical conditions involving Haemoglobin deficiency and other chronic disorders ultimately it is considered as green blood. Adolescents are susceptible to both macro and micronutrient deficiencies. Adolescent girls are mainly vulnerable groups due to blood loss during menstruation and poor dietary habits. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of wheatgrass fresh juice on the Haemoglobin level of adolescent anemic females. <strong>Materials and Methodology:</strong> 60 subjects were selected with Haemoglobin less than 10mg/dl and divided into two groups. Group 1- Study group was given 30ml of freshly prepared wheatgrass juice on empty stomach daily for 60 days. Where Group 2- Control group were observed with regular activities. <strong>Results</strong>: After 60 days the symptomatic improvement and increase in Haemoglobin level in the study group was noticed as compared to the control group. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Wheatgrass juice consumption will improve the Haemoglobin levels among anemic adolescent females Index. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Deepak Lakshmeesha D R Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 12 30 35 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12003 Stability Study of Vata (Ficus bengalensis Linn.) Jata (Aerial Roots) Kwatha (Decoction) with Respect to Baseline Microbial Diagnostic Modalities https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/68 <p><strong>Background<em>:</em></strong><em> Kwatha,</em> one of the most popular <em>Kalpana</em> amongst five basic <em>Kalpana</em>, is widely used therapeutically as well as pharmaceutically. Although a clear description is not available in <em>Vedic</em> literature whereas a detailed description is available in all <em>Samhitas</em> regarding its preparation, the proportion of water to be added, reduction in the volume of liquid, etc. <strong>Aims:</strong> To check the stability of classical liquid dosage form, <em>Vata (Ficus Bengalensis </em>Linn<em>.) Jata </em>(aerial roots)<em> Kwatha </em>(decoction) with respect to its microbial profile. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Sample of <em>Vata Jata Kwatha </em>was prepared and studied to check microbial contamination at regular intervals. <strong>Results:</strong> Six batches were subjected to the microbiological study from the date of the preparation to the date of the last microbiological study. No, any contaminations were found in the microbiological study in a minimum of one day and a maximum of 7 days after the preparation of the sample. <strong>Discussion: </strong>Hence the present study was carried out to observe the stability study of <em>Vata Jata Kwatha </em>with respect to Microbial Contamination of the sample prepared and preserved in different climatic and temperature conditions. Thus, a baseline Microbial profile was studied at a regular interval. At the end of the study, it was found that the shelf life of <em>Vata Jata Kwatha </em>was varied as per humidity and temperature. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>In the microbiological study of <em>Vata Jata Kwatha </em>shows its stability in a minimum of one day and a maximum of seven days after the preparation of the sample. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Pravin Jawanjal M.S. Cholera Prashant Bedarkar B.J. Patagiri Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-01-27 2022-01-27 12 36 43 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12004 FTIR and GCMS analysis of Euphorbia hirta L. and its In- vitro Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/79 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><em>: Euphorbia hirta</em> L. is a common weed plant belongs to family Euphorbiaceae. The present study brings out the importance of weed plants like <em>E. hirta</em> in medicine and health the care system. <strong>Material and Methods:</strong> Plant <em>E. hirta</em> has been collected from the garden of Department of Botany, University of Delhi and plant leaves were extracted in ethanol by the soxhlet method. Antibacterial screening has been done by disc-diffusion method. The antioxidant potential has been determined by TPC, TFC, FRAP, Total antioxidants through phosphomolybdate assay and by DPPH radical scavenging activity. FTIR and GCMS analysis have been done for characterization. <strong>Result and Discussions:</strong> Plant <em>E. hirta</em> showed significant antibacterial activity against <em>Escherichia coli,</em> <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Bacilus subtilis</em> and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> with maximum ZOI diameter 19± 0.5 mm against <em>S. aureus </em>and<em> P. aeruginosa </em>both. Plant <em>E. hirta</em> L. showed significant antioxidant potential with 196.32 mg/g, 39.7133 mg/g, 595.99 mg/g, 525.84 mg/g values for TPC, TFC, FRAP activity and total antioxidants through phosphomolybdate assay respectively. Plant <em>E. hirta</em> also showed significant radical scavenging activity against DPPH free radical with a maximum % inhibition 68.505% at 1000µg/ml concentration. FTIR and GCMS of plant <em>E. hirta</em> have confirmed the presence of various active functional groups and compounds. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The current study justifies the importance of <em>E. hirta </em>L. a common weed as a source of natural antioxidants having antibacterial potential and its role in herbal medicines. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Dolly Kain Suresh Kumar Vandana Amrita Suryavanshi Atul Arya Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-01-31 2022-01-31 12 104 109 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12009 Formulation and Evaluation of Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/80 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The objective of the present study was to develop colon targeted drug delivery system of Metronidazole using guar gum as the carrier. <strong>Methods:</strong> Matrix tablets containing various proportions of guar gum were prepared by direct compression technique. Rapidly disintegrating Metronidazole core tablets were prepared and compression coated with guar gum and 20% of microcrystalline cellulose. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, thickness, drug uniformity and subjected to in vitro drug release studies under conditions mimicking mouth to colon transit. <strong>Results and Conclusions: </strong>The FTIR study indicates no possible interaction between Metronidazole and carriers. The tablets were found within the permissible limits for various physiological parameters. In vitro drug release studies in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solution containing rat cecal contents have demonstrated the susceptibility of guar gum to the colonic bacterial enzyme action with consequent drug release. The pretreatment of rats orally with 1 ml of 2% w/v aqueous dispersion of guar gum for 7 d induced enzyme specifically acting on guar gum thereby increasing drug release. Dissolution studies were performed in 0.1N HCl for 2 h, in pH 7.4 buffer for 3 h and pH 6.8 up to 24 h. The cumulative percentage of drug release of Metronidazole after 24 h in pH 6.8 phosphate buffers was found to be 98.51±0.02, 86.69±0.02, 84.55±0.04, 39.31±0.02, 24.60±0.02, 18.85±0.02 for formulation F1, F2, F3, F4, F5 and F6. It can be concluded that formulation F1 is considered a potential formulation for targeting the drug to the colon. The results showed that guar gum protects the drug from being release completely in the physiological environment of stomach and small intestine. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Pravin Suruse Mangesh Godbole Kumudini Bhamre Umesh Shivhare Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-02-03 2022-02-03 12 115 121 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12011 In vitro Cytotoxic Activity of a Sulphated Polysaccharide Ulvan against Human Breast and Glioblastoma Cell line https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/81 <p>This study was designed to evaluate the hemolysis, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activity of sulphated polysaccharide ulvan extracted from green seaweed <em>Ulva lactuca </em>(UL). Ulvan was extracted and characterized with UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Total uronic acid and sulphate content were found to be&nbsp; 19.38% w/w and 22.53% w/w. The biocompatibility of the sulphated polysaccharide ulvan was evaluated via hemolysis, its interaction with erythrocyte structure and anti-inflammatory studies. Further, the polysaccharide was treated for cellular toxicity against human breast cancer (MCF-7) and human glioblastoma cancer (U87) cell lines using the 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay method. This study indicates that the sulphated polysaccharide ulvan was more suitable for biomedical applications with promising chemo preventive and chemotherapeutic activity. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> K. Sonia K.S. Meena S. Alamelu Bai Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-02-04 2022-02-04 12 122 127 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12012 Design and Characterization of Sustained Release Tablet Formulation Containing Metformin Hydrochloride and Simvastatin https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/82 <p>The aim of the present work was to develop pharmaceutical combinational dosage form for simultaneous treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes with at high-risk of coronary disease associated co-morbidities. Metformin, an antidiabetic drug is used to treat the diabetic patient and combined with Simvastatin which is HMG-CoA reductase inihibitor drug to treat the high-risk coronary disease simultaneously. In this formulation, three batches were prepared by the direct compression method. Preformulation parameters such as identification, solubility, melting point, compatibility studies, Pre-compression parameters such as bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Hausner ratio, compressibility index, and Post-compression parameters like weight uniformity, hardness, drug content, thickness, <em>in-vitro</em> drug release. <em>In-vitro</em> drug release of all formulations, B1, B2, and B3 was carried out in 0.1N HCl for 2hrs and 10 hrs in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) dissolution media. Among all the formulations, B3 was an optimized batch. B3 formulations showed drug release of 85% for Metformin Hydrochloride and 93% for Simvastatin over a period of 12hrs. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Shankar Dhobale Sayali Nilakh Suresh Jadhav Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-02-04 2022-02-04 12 128 133 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12013 Isolation and Characterization of Principle Bioactive Compounds from Ulva fasciata https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/83 <p>Microorganisms have developed new strategies to evade the action of antibiotics leading to multiple drug resistant bacterial strains, leading to an increasing demand in screening for new therapeutic drugs from natural product. Marine organisms are identified as a potential source of novel bioactive compounds. With this in view the study was undertaken to explore the principle bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity from green seaweed <em>Ulva fasciata.</em> Seaweeds possess bioactive compounds and they have been found to exhibit biological activity against human pathogens. Extraction of the seaweed was carried out using ethanol. The extract was screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity against various bacterial and fungal human pathogens by disc diffusion assay. The bioactive compound present in seaweed was identified using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry. The ethanolic extract of <em>U. fasciata </em>showed wide range of activity against Gram negative bacterial and few fungal pathogens, while the extract was effective only against <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> among the Gram-positive organisms selected for the study. The ethanolic extract of <em>U. fasiata</em> was subjected to antibacterial activity guided fractionation which led to the separation of the bioactive compound Cholest–5-en-3-ol. The result of present study revealed that the extracts of the seaweed showed potential antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens. The presence of the bioactive compound makes the seaweed an effective drug of choice for treating various bacterial infections. Hence it is concluded Cholest-5-en-3-ol isolated from <em>U. fasciata</em> can be used as a potential bioactive compound for therapeutic purpose. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Chenniyappan Sasikala Durairaj Geetharamani Natarajan Swetha Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-02-04 2022-02-04 12 134 140 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12014 In vitro Axillary Mass Multiplication of Trichodesma indicum https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/84 <p>In vitro mass propagation has been regarded as a significant technique for mass propagation of plantlets in a short period and utilization of cell suspension cultures for metabolite generation. It has helped in biodiversity conservation of many endemic plants since it provides a way for the utilization of plant germplasm without destroying natural habitats. <em>Trichodesma indicum</em> is one of the most significant medicinal herbs and desired for many formulations in the medical sector. Its overexploitation from natural habitats may be a threat to its diversity. The authors have proposed an optimized protocol for plantlet generation with greater viability potential and could be used to mass propagate plants in a short period. It was evident from the study that variable combinations of plant growth regulators and sucrose were able to alter the multiplication potential of axillary buds and it could be enhanced with the proper combination. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Shameema Yousuf Santosh Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-02-06 2022-02-06 12 141 144 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12015 Cytotoxicity and Anticancer activity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Solanum torvum on Normal Vero and Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cell Line https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/94 <p>Natural herbal products are formulated with a combination of phytoconstituents from plants which play a pivotal role because of their diverse medicinal properties. Limited plants have been screened for their complete biological and pharmacological nature. In the present research work an attempt was made to infer the medicinal value of aqueous extract of Solanum<em> torvum </em>(<em>S. torvum</em>) leaves. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous extracts of <em>S. torvum </em>leaf in the present study ascertain the presence of flavonoids, phenols, saponins, alkaloids, coumarins, sterols, proteins and reducing sugars. Further, the potentiality of aqueous extract of <em>S. torvum</em> leaves was assessed for its cytotoxic effect on Normal Vero cell line and anticancer activity on Human breast adenocarcinoma cell line by 3- (4, 5 dimethyl thiazole-2-yl) -2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. A 24-hour incubation cell proliferation study reduced the cell viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. <em>In vitro </em>studies on cytotoxicity analysis on Vero cell line revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of <em>S. torvum </em>has no toxicity and further it was found to be effective in the prevention of cell proliferation by MCF-7 cell lines. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Shanthi Dhamodaran Raja Kothandam Saravanan Ramachandran Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-02-20 2022-02-20 12 145 152 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12016 Effect of Temperature and Preservation Period on the Viability of Lyophilized Bacillus subtilis https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/77 <p><strong> Objective</strong>: We sought to study the effect of temperature and preservation period on the viability of lyophilized <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>. <strong>Methods: </strong>Forty-five test tubes that contained suspension of <em>B. subtilis</em> ATCC 6633 were incubated for 4 hours at 37°C and washed twice before freeze-drying. Next, the lyophilized bacteria were exposed to different temperatures (-20°C, 2-8°C, and 25°C) and storage periods (30 days, 120 days, and 240 days). Further, the lyophilized bacteria were evaluated for their viability using the Miles and Misra method. Finally, the colony count of <em>B. subtilis</em> in each group was compared and analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and the Tukey-test (post-hoc test). <strong>Results: </strong>The lyophilized <em>B. subtilis</em> showed the viability of 93.3% (42/45) of test tubes. All of the lyophilized <em>B. subtilis</em> stored at -20°C for 30, 120, and 240 days remained viable while the bacteria stored at 2-8°C and 25°C showed the viability of 93.3% (14/15) and 86.6%, respectively. The lyophilized <em>B. subtilis</em> stored at three group temperatures and kept for 120 and 240 days showed a significant decline in their number over the control group (p &lt;0.05). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion, the temperature and preservation period significantly affect the viability of the lyophilized <em>B. subtilis</em>. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Kim Vanessa Phoane Enty Tjoa Shikha Joon Listya Utami Karmawan Lucky Hartati Moehario Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 12 153 155 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12017 In vitro Inhibitory Effect on Alpha Amylase Enzyme by Polyherbal Dip Tea in Diabetes https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/54 <p><strong> Objective: </strong>The present study aims to prepare novel polyherbal formulations in a unique and accessible tea bag form and also analyses the antidiabetic potentials in vitro. <strong>Material and method:</strong> The formulation was made from <em>Ichnocarpus frutescens(IC), Ficus dalhousiae (FD), Creteva magna (CM), Alpinia galanga (AG) and Swertia chirata (SC) </em>herbs and used in this study. Indian medicinal plants i.e., polyherbal were subjected to progressive phytochemical analysis and tests were carried out for the determination of α-amylase inhibition activity. The Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Tannins, Anthraquinone, Flavonoids, Saponin and reducing sugar, as the active compounds. The tea infusions of the aforementioned plants were prepared in different formulations like F1, F2, F3, and F4. The formulations were tested for antidiabetic activity <em>in vitro </em>through the inhibition of alpha-glycosidase. <strong>Results: </strong>The F3 (91.6%) and F4 (92.7%) showed the higher inhibition data against porcine pancreatic α-amylase among the Four formulations. The minimum % alpha-amylase inhibition was recorded in F2 (90.4%) among the medicinal active plants studied. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Hyperglycaemia level is reduced via a controllable condition of starch breakdown through pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors. Best results were obtained by the infusion containing The F2 formulation which showed significant antidiabetic activity. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Mohsina Patwekar Aamir Quazi Faheem I.P Mohammad Ajmal Kamal Mukim M Gulzar Ahmed Rather Abhinandan Patil Patil Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 12 156 165 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12018 Preparation and Evaluation of Directly Compressible Tablets of Ibuprofen Crystals https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/132 <p>The goal of present study was to prepare the directly compressible tablets of Ibuprofen crystals prepared by crystallization technique using saccharin sodium as an excipient. The prepared tablets were evaluated for the improvement in drug release of Ibuprofen as compared to the pure drug. The crystal formation of Ibuprofen lead to improve the compressibility and mechanical strength of the drug which can be easily converted to directly compressible tablets. The <em>In-vitro </em>dissolution profile demonstrates 3.96 fold increment in the drug release rate from tablets of Ibuprofen crystals compared to the pure drug after one hour. The characterization was done by Powder X-Ray Diffractometry (pXRD), and Headspace Gas Chromatography (HSGC) Study of Ibuprofen treated crystals illustrates the improvement in manufacturability and pharmacotechnical parameters of the drug. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Pooja D. Vaghela N.U. Patel H.M. Tank Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-04-23 2022-04-23 12 166 174 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12019 Effect of Polymers in the Design and Characterization of Sustained Release Aceclofenac Microspheres https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/133 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The aim of present work was to design and characterize sustained release Aceclofenac, model drug, microspheres by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. <strong>Methods:</strong> Aceclofenac microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation process by using Ethyl cellulose and Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose as polymers. The microspheres were evaluated by drug release study, drug content, drug loading and encapsulation efficiency, and determination of percentage yield. <strong>Results:</strong> The present study shows that as the polymer concentration increases the percentage encapsulation efficiency, and drug content in the microsphere formulation also increases. The microspheres of all the formulated batches were spherical, discrete and free flowing. Increasing the polymer concentration in microsphere formulation decreases the rate of drug release dramatically. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> It might be concluded that drug loaded microspheres appear to be a suitable delivery system for a model drug, Aceclofenac, and may help to reduce dose of drug and frequency of administration. Sustained release of Aceclofenac microspheres could be formulated by using ethyl cellulose and HPMC as a release retardant by emulsion solvent evaporation technique.© 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Pooja D. Vaghela Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-04-23 2022-04-23 12 175 178 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12020 Formulation of Silver Nanoparticle of Cassia angustifolia by Using Green Synthesis Method and Screening for In-Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/16 <p>The main objectives in developing nanoparticles as a delivery system are to manage particle size, surface characteristics, and the release of pharmacologically active substances to achieve the drug's site-specific action at the appropriate rate and dose. They can help boost medication stability and have helpful controlled release features, for example. Nowadays researchers are moving towards the green chemistry approach which is an alternative route that is eco-friendly, cheap and fast; in that plant extracts and microorganisms are used in the reduction of the metal salt which is fast gaining demand in the field of nanobiotechnology. In this study, silver nitrate was reduced to its “nanosilver form” through a one-step synthesis protocol using an extract of <em>Cassia Angustifolia.</em> Three different batches namely batch A, B, C of varying temperature and another three batches namely D, E, F of varying pH were synthesized. The prepared nanoparticles were optimized and characterized by practical yield determination, drug entrapment efficiency, particle size determination and measurement of zeta potential. The synthesized nanoparticles were screened for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Result found that the percentage practical yield of synthesized nanoparticles was within the range of 6.41-52.61%. The drug entrapment efficiency was found to be 99.875%. AgNPs inhibited protein denaturation and showed 75.52% inhibition at 500μg ml-1 whereas standard drug Aspirin exhibited 65.03% protein denaturation. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Priyanka Annaso. Patil Shubdha Dalvi Vishwajit Dhaygude Sanmati D. Shete Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-04-24 2022-04-24 12 183 188 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12022 In vitro Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of Polyherbal Anti-Wrinkle Cream https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/221 <p>Purpose: Skin ageing can be described as irregular pigmentation, increased wrinkling, loss of elasticity, dryness and roughness. Wrinkling of the skin is the most obvious sign of deterioration of the human body with age. Herbal cosmetics enhance the human appearance by playing a major role in impeding and reversing the ageing of the skin. Method: In this study, anti wrinkle creams were formulated with herbal oils of different concentrations namely AW1, AW2, AW3 and AW4. All cream formulations were evaluated for different parameters like pH, viscosity, spreadability, stability studies etc. The creams were found to be stable during stability studies done according to ICH guidelines.&nbsp; All in vitro tests results were analyzed statistically using SPSS software 17.0 version and compared with standard marketed formulations. Results: The formulated creams were consistent in quality and safe to be used on the skin. The Anti Wrinkle creams showed no evidence of phase separation and ease of removal. The creams were not shown any redness, edema, inflammation and irritation to the skin during skin irritation studies. The formulated creams were found statistical significant difference with that of standard at p&lt;0.05. Conclusion: Formulations AW2 and AW4 showed good pH, viscosity, homogeneity, good spreadability, good extrudability with good appearance during the three months of stability studies. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Usha Kiranmai G Shayeda Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 12 209 215 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12026 Carbapenemase Detection Among Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates Using a Modified Blue-Carba Test https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/76 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> is a Gram-negative opportunistic bacteria with carbapenemase-associated antibiotic resistance accounting for a majority of nosocomial infections globally. We sought to detect carbapenemase producers among carbapenem-resistant <em>A. baumannii</em> (CRAB) clinical isolates using Blue-Carba Test (BCT). <strong>Methods</strong>: This study was an observational descriptive study. At first, <em>A. baumannii</em> clinical isolates (142) were collected from January 2014 to September 2017 and stored at the Microbiology Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Atma Jaya Hospital. Next step involved the identification of the carbapenem-resistant isolates using WHONET 5.3 software (<a href="https://whonet.org/software.html">https://whonet.org/software.html</a>). Here, Imipenem and Meropenem served as markers. Finally, the identified carbapenem-resistant isolates were subjected to Blue-Carba Test. <strong>Results</strong>: Among 142 <em>A. baumannii</em> isolates, 51.4% (73/142) were identified as CRAB. Of these, 36 isolates were revived and all were found to be carbapenemase positive. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Conclusively, a cent percent (36/36) prevalence of carbapenemase producers was observed in the CRAB group, which is an important clinical finding for antibiotic selection against <em>A. baumannii</em> infection. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Enty Tjoa Shikha Joon Dianita Angeline Andrew A. Lieputra Daniel Edbert Lucky Hartati Moehario Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 12 216 219 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12027 Charota (Cassia tora) Gum: A Potential Element as Suspending Agent, An Investigation of Suitability for Development of Paracetamol Suspension https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/6 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Charota (<em>Cassia tora</em>) gum is well reported as an additive for food product and generally recognized as safe” (GRAS). It is obtained from the seed of the herbaceous plants of the <em>Caesalpiniaceae</em> family<em>. </em>The plant's seed contains gluco-mannose polysaccharides, which swell in water and form a colloidal dispersion with increasing viscosity. This property of the gum was explored to use as a suspending agent for the preparation of paracetamol suspension. <strong>Result</strong>: In the present investigation, charota gum was extracted from the plant and used as a suspending agent in a range of 2-4% w/v in preparation of paracetamol suspension (5% w/v). The investigation has been performed compared with gum acacia, tragacanth, and gelatin at a similar range of 2-4% w/v. The parameters like sedimentation profile, rheological studies, redispersibility, pH, and dissolution rate were determined to evaluate suspending ability of <em>Cassia tora </em>gum. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: A comparative data with other gum reported a higher viscosity and lowest zeta potential for the suspension prepared with Charota gum. At different concentrations, it showed better suspending ability and redispersibility compare, and it was stable throughout the storage period of 6 weeks. The study's data conclude that charota gum produced flocculated suspension, redispersed in the least no of shakes post sedimentation. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Khomendra Kumar Sarwa Prabhat Kumar Vishwakarma Vijendra Kumar Suryawanshi Dhaneshwar Uraon Malti Sao Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2022-08-20 2022-08-20 12 228 236 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12029 An Indigenous Study on Malassezial Susceptibility Testing by Selected Plant Extracts https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/246 <p>The present study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal activity of ten selected plant extracts of <em>Nelumbo nucifera, Senna auriculata, Salvia officinalis, Tagetes erecta, Psidium guajava, Argemone mexicana</em>,<em> Hibiscus sabdariffa, Hemidesmus indicus, Moringa oleifera</em>, and<em> Glycyrrhiza glabra </em>with ketoconazole as the positive reference standard. Their antimalassezial efficacy was tested using different concentrations of extracts in various solvents. The preliminary screening of plant extracts was determined by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method and among the ten plant extracts, aqueous extract of <em>S. officinalis</em> and ethanol extract of <em>H. sabdariffa</em> extract exhibited potent antifungal activity against <em>Malassezia furfur</em>. The purification and partial characterization of <em>H. sabdariffa </em>and <em>S. officinalis </em>were carried out by Thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of <em>H. sabdariffa </em>and<em> S. officinalis</em> against <em>M. furfur </em>by Kirby Bauer method was 0.312 mg/mL and 0.625 mg/mL respectively against 50 µg/mL of Ketoconazole which was used as the standard. The phytochemical analysis of <em>S. officinalis </em>and <em>H. sabdariffa </em>revealed the presence of terpenoids, steroids, tannins, and polyphenols of which the concentration of polyphenols and flavonoids were significantly higher in <em>S. officinalis</em> and <em>H. sabdariffa </em>respectively. Thus, the present study concludes that <em>S. officinalis</em> and <em>H. sabdariffa </em>have a potent activity against <em>M. furfur</em>, thereby reducing the prevalence of dandruff, provided the future perspectives of the study that include characterization and cytotoxicity of the compound. &nbsp;© 2022 Caproslaxy Media. All rights reserved.</p> S.R. Suguna Tessy Anu Thomas Sharmila Tirumale Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 12 253 257 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12033 Natural Gums and Carbohydrate-Based Polymers: Potential Encapsulants https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/52 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Plants possess a wide range of bioactive compounds with established health benefits which are highly susceptible to degradation. The environmental dynamics such as high temperature, light, oxygen limits the shelf life and bioavailability of these compounds in food and drug formulations. Encapsulation serves as an effective way of preserving these sensitive compounds by enclosing them within a coating/wall material and hence improves their bioavailability and functional properties. <strong>Scope and Approach</strong>: The wall materials used for encapsulation also known as encapsulants act as physical barriers between core compound and external stimuli. There are different edible protein, lipid and carbohydrate based encapsulants used for coating of bioactive compounds. However, this review gives a detailed insight on composition, functional properties, and applications of carbohydrate based polymers in food, and pharmaceutical industries while emphasizing on the advantages and limitations of these polymers in encapsulation process. So, we explored recent expansion in the area of natural polysaccharides and their derivatives as carriers for the targeted and sustained delivery of active compounds. <strong>Key Findings and Conclusions:</strong> Polysaccharides, natural gums (Carrageenan, Alginate, Gum arabic, Guar gum, Gellan gum, Xanthan gum) and their derivatives are biodegradable polymers being used as sustained release carriers. They are more advantageous over lipid based and protein based carriers by virtue of their unique features such as thermo stability and versatility of interacting with a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. Tailor-made carriers made by structural modifications of the polysaccharides using physical, chemical and enzymatic reactions result in improved functional properties and hence widen their area of applications. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Zoha Ansari Sangeeta Goomer Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-01-10 2022-01-10 12 01 20 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12001 Microsponge as Novel Drug Delivery System: A Review https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/53 <p>During the last few decades, pharmaceutical industry gave more importance to the controlled release of dosage forms like solid formulation, semi solid formulation, and topical preparation due to efficacy and patient compliance. Normal topical preparations have some disadvantages like unpleasant odour, greasiness, and skin irritation reported in study cases. Also many topical preparations fail to reach the systemic circulation in sufficient amounts in few cases. This problem is achieved by the present formulation as microsponge in the areas of research. MDS is a microscopic sphere capable of absorbing skin secretions, therefore reducing the oiliness of the skin. Microsponge having particle size of 10-25 microns in diameter, have wide range of entrapment of various ingredients in a single microsponges system and release them at desired rates. Microsponge is recent novel technique for control release and target specific drug delivery system. Microsponges are polymeric delivery system composed of porous microspheres. They are tiny sponge-like spherical particle with a large porous surface. Drug release in microsponge is done by the external stimuli like (pH, temperature, rubbing). It has several advantageous over the other topical preparations are non allergenic, non toxic, non irritant, non mutagenic. Microsponges are designed to deliver a pharmaceutical active ingredient efficiently at the minimum dose and also to enhance stability, reduce side effects and modify drug release. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Pratima Jayasawal N. G. Raghavendra Rao Vikas Jakhmola Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-01-10 2022-01-10 12 21 29 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12002 Clinical Translation of Gold Nanoparticles into Effective Neuromedicines: Bottlenecks & Future Prospects https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/70 <p>Nanotechnology is the most interesting and advance area of research field in the current date. Nanoparticles are defined as a substance whose particle size varies between 1-100nm.This review focus on the potential of gold nanoparticles to be used as an alternative to available neuromedicines due to their various unique properties. This paper also deals with advantages of gold nanoparticles over available neuromedicines along with various bottlenecks in the translation of gold nanoparticles into effective neuromedicines and the future perspective or scope of gold nanoparticles to be used as neuromedicines. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> N T Pramathesh Mishra Shalini Yadav Mayank Khantwal Wasim Khan Salman Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-01-27 2022-01-27 12 44 52 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12005 A Review on Computational Software Tools for Drug Design and Discovery https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/71 <p>In the current era of modern drug design &amp; development via computer-aided drug design, the potential role of computational software tools is widely enlarged in use. Computer-based drug design is revolutionary in the new drug discovery process because these processes are fast, time, and cost-saving with more efficient pharmacological activity. Computer-Based drug design is mainly applied for the drug-design and gets many successes in new drug research. There is plenty of software available in drug design; however; still, many issues are rising during its use. To clarify these issues, an attempt has been provided here in this article about the information about worldwide used 189 computation tools along with citation of software tools, download links, computer operative system and application of tools for available software such as Molecular modeling, docking, proteins conformation, pharmacophore mapping, ADMET, Docking pose visualization, force field calculation, homology modeling, 3D structure generator, Computational Crystallography, protein Database, and calculation software. This vital information enlightens all the software right from old to a recent one. Review article important for choice and application of wide-reaching used Drug Design software. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Jimish R. Patel Hirak V. Joshi Ujashkumar A. Shah Jayvadan K. Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-01-29 2022-01-29 12 53 81 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12006 Lung Cancer: How Well We Have Fared? https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/74 <p>Lung Cancer has been one of the most common causes of death worldwide. With the death toll increasing in millions every year globally it has become a global scourge. With poor prognosis and disappointing 5 years survival rate post diagnosis, treatment for this disease has been ambiguous. Various advances in treatment are being made but till date the 5 years survival for major patients remains a dream. This review encompasses different treatment options that are available, problems associated with treatment and future perspective for the treatment of lung cancer. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Pradeep S. Patil Hitendra S. Mahajan Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-01-31 2022-01-31 12 82 91 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12007 Emulgel – Emerging as a Smarter Value-Added Product Line Extension for Topical Preparation https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/78 <p>Topical products applied to skin in consistency from liquids to powder in formulation but the most popular product is semisolid preparation. In semisolid preparation comparison with others, the use of gels has been emerged for both in dermatology and cosmetology. Despite of many advantages of gels one limitation for in delivery of hydrophobic drug moiety. Emulgel technique contains both oil and aqueous gel base so it can be used for hydrophobic drugs. Emulgel technique also useful for product line extension for drug available in ointment and cream formulation. Emulgel can also provide local concentration of drug in affected area so it is more effective than regular gel in curative aspects and more depth permeation of drug. Emulgel are thermodynamically stable systems having several features like enhanced permeability; prolong drug release, stability of emulsion and good thermodynamic stability. From this review, we get the knowledge about emulgel formulation, advantages, characterization and recent advances in the research field. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Neelam Patel Sunita Chaudhary Ankit Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-01-31 2022-01-31 12 92 103 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12008 Telecardiology in the Era of COVID-19: Slaying the Lernaen Hydra of Cardiovascular Disease with the Assistance of a Post-modern Iolaus https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/59 <p>The delivery of healthcare to patients with chronic non-communicable diseases has been challenging during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cardiovascular diseases constitute the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the western world and beyond. Telecardiology services are essential for the continuity of medical care, the prevention, and early diagnosis of disease exacerbations. This is a dire need for both patients, who can experience long-term impairment and decrease in functional independence if left untreated, and healthcare systems, who cannot endure additional burden in times of crisis. The development and maintenance of effective remote care frameworks in this field is a multidisciplinary endeavor, where input and scholarly dialogue in the whole spectrum of applied sciences is valuable. In this context, the authors provide an overview of telecardiology applications, discuss its strengths and weaknesses and elaborate on strategies for safe and effective remote cardiovascular care during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Christos Tsagkaris Lolita Matiashova Andreas S Papazoglou Dimitrios V Moysidis Anna Loudovikou Athanasios Alexiou Mohammad Amjad Kamal Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-02-03 2022-02-03 12 110 114 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12010 Nutraceuticals in the work of Scribonius Largus, a Pioneer of Clinical Pharmacy in ancient Rome https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/60 <p>The therapeutic potential of nutraceuticals has been recognized by several ancient civilizations. The majority of physicians would use them in their practice and transmit their experience to their disciples. Nonetheless, few physicians have contributed to the dissemination of this knowledge further and its integration into the standard of care of their era. Scribonius Largus, a renowned physician and pharmacist in ancient Rome has summarized the existing knowledge on nutraceuticals in his pharmacognosy and therapeutics textbook “Compositiones”. As a physician to the imperial court, he used his position and resources to advance the relevant knowledge, educate erudite and lay physicians across the Roman Empire, and establish ethical practices in the field. Revisiting his contributions provides valuable lessons for contemporary researchers and practitioners. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Christos Tsagkaris Lolita Matiashova Andreas S Papazoglou Dimitrios V Moysidis Anna Loudovikou Athanasios Alexiou Stavros Papadakos Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-04-23 2022-04-23 12 179 182 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12021 Prevalence, Pathogenesis and Identification of Clinical Risk Factors Associated with Dengue Virus (DENV) https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/46 <p>Dengue, also called the break bone fever. Dengue disease is caused by dengue virus (DENV) having four categories that escalate by the bite of infected Aedes mosquito’s family are Flaviviridae. The infected person shows the signs and symptoms from mild asymptomatic changes with fever to severe deadly dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Nearly 2.5- 3 billion people stay in dengue-prone areas with more than 100 million new cases ruled out every year worldwide. Number of Dengue cases has increased tremendous ratio in recent years with sudden risk of the increase in the size of human population. A condition known as viremia (medical term: virus present in blood) occurs due to spread of DENV, which represents high level of viruses in bloodstream of patient. In response the immune system gets activated and produces antibodies against the dengue viral particles, which in turn activates the complement cascade which in combination of the antibodies and WBC get rid of the virus. The cytotoxic T cells (CD8+ T) produced by the body immune system, which identifies and destroy infected cells. Dengue spreads drastically, its virus regress the immunity of body. DENV reduces the bodies’ resistance and decreases the Platelets count and Hemoglobin. Fall in blood pressure and bleeding from Nose and Gums, Dehydration can occur. Small blood vessels are fragile, the fluid in the body leaks out, accumulate in the lungs. When there is bleeding, the fluid is accumulated in the stomach it can result to mortality or can be fatal. The DENV-3 infection cause Dengue Viral Hemorrhagic fever (VHFs) which is severe and fatal form of the disease. The main Dengue shock syndrome is the most severe form of Dengue Hemorrhagic fever. Dengue has presently become a complex issue according to pathophysiological, economic and ecologic. In the last 5 decades a number of treatment strategies and plans to control dengue came out in India, but the scientific studies related to various problems of dengue disease have been a limited resource in the centers where treatment was carried out. The key note point to reduce the number of disease related morbidity and mortality has to be carried out by early identification and immediate commencement of proper treatment. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Mohsina F.P. Faheem I.P. Mukim Mohammad Shahana Tabassum Shoaeb Tarkash Irshad Shah Abhinandan Patil Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 12 189 196 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12023 A Brief Overview on the Health Benefits of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn.- A Wonder of Mother Nature https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/193 <p>Ayurveda is one of the oldest systems of drugs. It principally uses plants and their extracts for treatment and management of assorted diseases. <em>Nyctanthes arbor-tristis</em> Linn.(NAT) is documented Indian ancient&nbsp; plant&nbsp; that has high medicative worth in Ayurveda. It’s popularly called Parijat or Harsingar principally found in southern elements of Asian nation &amp; Nepal etc. Phytochemicals like flavanol organic compound, oleanic acid, essential oils, phenol, carotene, friedeline, lupeol, glucose, benzoic acid have been reported for vital hepatoprotective, anti-allergy, antianxiety, anti-filarial, antianemia, antidiabetic, antimalarial, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer activities.&nbsp; Each a district of the plant has some specific healthful price and is so commercially exploitable. Thus, it’s thought of as a valuable supply of some distinctive medicative, merchandise formation against numerous diseases. The descriptions of scientific classification, family and genus characters, vernacular names, habitat, morphology, ancient medicine, therapeutic use etc. are richly mentioned throughout this criticism. &nbsp;© 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Ria Chakraborty Santa Datta(De) Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 12 197 204 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12024 Booster Dose for Tackling Emerging Variant of SARS-CoV-2 https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/166 <p>A novel species of coronavirus has engulfed the entire world. Its severity and rate at which it transmits have left no country untouched. Massive replication has brought mutation in the genomic sequence of the virus. Due to this, many newer variants of SARS-COV-2 have come into play. Many therapies are available for covid 19, such as Remdesivir, Baricitinib, Molnupiravir, etc., but none are effective at preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. Even most of the efficacious vaccines against the earlier variants are now inefficacious against, the newer variants. So, the people already vaccinated with the primary course of vaccination are at risk of reinfection and symptomatic COVID 19 illness. Furthermore, the initial immune response produced by these vaccines may have diminished with time, paving the pathway for discussion on the absolute need for time off and booster doses for vaccinated people. Some developed countries like the U.K and Israel favor the booster dose strategy, while some defy it, claiming it is necessary to vaccinate unvaccinated people first rather than giving vaccines multiple times. In this article, we have explained the necessity of booster doses in tackling newer variants. However, for the time being, devising a variant-specific vaccine seems promising to hiatus this transmission. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Amit Kumar Anup Kumar Rittwika Banerjee Nayan Das Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2022-08-15 2022-08-15 12 220 227 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12028 A Virulent Disease Called Monkeypox: A Case Report of Countries in Africa Where The Disease is Endemic https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/224 <p>Cases of Monkeypox continue to rise and the World Health Organization (WHO), declared it a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). A virus called monkey pox causes the disease and it is zoonotic. The epidemiological surveillance from 1981-1986 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) a country in Africa were the disease is endemic, documented only 338 cases. Previously, 90% of the affected persons were children approximately 15 years of age at least in the endemic countries in Africa. Beyond Africa, 99% cases of the current outbreak were found in men and of those, 98% involved men who have sex with men implying it is being transmitted through sexual activities. Crowded living quarters, poor hygiene, discontinuation of the smallpox vaccination, amongst others were implicated in the human to human transmission. The symptoms of the disease includes, viremia with 1-2 days of fever and lymphadenopathy before lesions appear. Patients at this stage may be contagious. For treatments, there are no known clinically proven treatments for the disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification are used for specific diagnosis and smallpox vaccines are effective against the disease. Table 1 shows cases from Africa union member countries (AUMC), and Congo Republic, Cameroon and DRC, have a high cumulative frequency (CFR) of occurrence (43, 5.6 and 4.1%), respectively (see Fig 2). The vaccine is not readily available in these endemic countries thus, donors countries needs to collaborate with researchers and health officials to determine what these endemic countries in the global south requires towards enabling scale up in response to this disease. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Michael Okoh Kenneth C. Nwachukwu Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2022-08-22 2022-08-22 12 237 244 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12030 Disporum Cantoniense (Lour.) Merr.: An Overview and Study of Traditional Use https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/129 <p>Over the past two decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of indigenous herbal medicinal plants in modern medicine; however, there is still a significant lack of research data in this field. This incomprehensive information base shades the development of a comprehensive research agenda especially in the context of developing Asian countries like Nepal. This chapter gives an overview of traditional medicinal plant <em>Disporum Cantoniense,</em> which is called hadjora (bone-joining) in Nepali and has been used since time unmemorable in case of bone fracture. Apart from this, <em>D. cantoniense </em>has various other medicinal uses in other regions around the globe. This chapter deals with overall aspects of <em>D. cantoniense </em>with sequential demystification thus enabling a greater understanding of its use and possibility to be used as alternative medicine in the future. © 2022 Caproslaxy Media. All rights reserved.</p> Sushil Regmi Kmensiful Binan Himal Barakoti Rajeev K. Singla Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 12 258 264 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12034 A Comprehensive Review on Rising Concern of Transmission Potential of Monkeypox Virus on Healthcare System https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/229 <p>Over the past few years, the countries of the world have been afflicted with numerous infectious ailments. As the terror of the COVID-19 disease widespread decreases, nations throughout the world are facing the terror of the epidemic surrounding the pervasiveness of the geographical spread of human monkeypox cases worldwide. Thus, several approaches to decimate the rising spread of the monkeypox virus (MPXV) are warranted. MPXV cases received global attention during the 1970s, emanating from Africa has fully-fledged to be a universal concern with MPXV cases reported in Israel, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Monkeypox appears as a zoonotic viral disease that is instigated via the monkeypox virus recognized as the most critical orthopoxviral infection in humans. Transmission of the monkeypox virus to human beings is alleged to occur via direct exposure to infected animals or it can probably be transmitted via consuming infected meat, or blood. The transmission from human to human takes place through the respiratory route (droplets), virus-contaminated material, and direct contact (skin-to-skin or sexual). This disease may be caused several difficulties including, headache, fever, malaise, back pain, rash, and lymphadenopathies. Presently, there is no proven therapy for its treatment, thus monkeypox virus is considered a major threat to global health security. In this review, we discussed the transmission potential of the monkeypox virus on the healthcare system, its epidemiology, mode of transmission, and different diagnostic, preventive, and treatment approaches. © 2022 Caproslaxy Media. All rights reserved.</p> Rajat Goyal Mohini Devi Rupesh K. Gautam Sumeet Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 12 265 272 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12035 Vaccination Strategies for Monkey Pox: An Update https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/227 Hitesh Chopra Amanpreet Kaur Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2022-08-24 2022-08-24 12 245 247 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12031 Human Monkeypox- An Update https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/225 <p>Human monkeypox disease, a rare zoonosis endemic in Western and central Africa emerged in 56 different countries around the world with an increase of 77% in cases is a global concern. Natural animal reservoir of monkeypox virus is still unknown; rodents and primates except human are the probable source of virus introduction to human. A clear and sufficient data about the virulence and transmissibility of human monkeypox disease is limited due to inconsistence in the epidemiological studies. As per World Health Organisation and Centre for Disease Control status report smallpox vaccine is found to provide 85% immunity against human monkeypox disease. There is currently no specific treatment available and two antibiotic drugs tecovirimat and brincidofovir can be used as supportive treatment for time being. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.</p> Johra Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 12 248 252 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12032 Biased Studies and Sampling from LGBTQ Communities Created a Next-Level Social Stigma in Monkeypox: A Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) https://igjps.com/index.php/IGJPS/article/view/214 <p>Since 2020, we are witnessing a COVID-19 pandemic that has ruled out all other pandemics ever happened in our history. Countries are still not able to manage the COVID-19 threat properly, and while we are still dealing with it, here comes another deadly infectious disease, monkeypox. Rapid circulation of monkeypox infections worldwide has forced the WHO to declared it as PHEIC. As per the current reports available on WHO, though the monkeypox is alarmingly spreading, but this threat seems to be quite manageable if dealt properly with smallpox vaccine and other antibiotic regimens in proper place. Key challenge now is actually how to control misinformation and misleading news that flooded the social media and news outlets. We have gathered studies available on the PubMed search engine since the starting of 2022, and also collected relevant information from WHO and other reliable news sources. As on 27.07.2022, WHO reported 19,178 laboratory confirmed cases, and out of these, on the white paper, only for 31.8% cases, there was recorded information about the sexual orientation. But if we look at the scientific publications and social media, it is only men having sex with men (MSM) who are the main victims and having monkeypox infections. Same message is being circulated to the common public through such channels. It is thus becoming responsibility of WHO, government and public health agencies to properly guide the public and aware them about the misleading information. Further, the presence of monkeypox DNA in the urine and feces have again showcased the role of wastewater management and proper surveillance.</p> Rajeev K. Singla Shailja Singla Bairong Shen Copyright (c) 2022 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IGJPS) 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 12 205 208 10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12025