A Virulent Disease Called Monkeypox: A Case Report of Countries in Africa Where The Disease is Endemic


  • Michael P. Okoh Institutes for Systems Genetics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2438-8500
  • Kenneth C. Nwachukwu Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja, P.M.B 117 FCT, Abuja-Nigeria




Monkeypox, Smallpox, Sexually transmitted disease, COVID-19, Viruses, Vaccination, Zoonotic


Cases of Monkeypox continue to rise and the World Health Organization (WHO), declared it a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). A virus called monkey pox causes the disease and it is zoonotic. The epidemiological surveillance from 1981-1986 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) a country in Africa were the disease is endemic, documented only 338 cases. Previously, 90% of the affected persons were children approximately 15 years of age at least in the endemic countries in Africa. Beyond Africa, 99%  cases of the current outbreak were found in men and of those, 98% involved men who have sex with men implying it is being transmitted through sexual activities. Crowded living quarters, poor hygiene, discontinuation of the smallpox vaccination, amongst others were implicated in the human to human transmission. The symptoms of the disease includes, viremia with 1-2 days of  fever and lymphadenopathy before lesions appear. Patients at this stage may be contagious. For treatments, there are no known clinically proven treatments for the disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification are used for specific diagnosis and smallpox vaccines are effective against the disease. Table 1 shows cases from Africa union member countries (AUMC), and Congo Republic, Cameroon and DRC, have a high cumulative frequency (CFR) of occurrence (43, 5.6 and 4.1%), respectively (see Fig 2). The vaccine is not readily available in these endemic countries thus, donors countries needs to collaborate with researchers and health officials to determine what these endemic countries in the global south requires towards enabling scale up in response to this disease.  © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.


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How to Cite

Okoh, M., & Nwachukwu, K. C. (2022). A Virulent Disease Called Monkeypox: A Case Report of Countries in Africa Where The Disease is Endemic. Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 12, 237–244. https://doi.org/10.35652/IGJPS.2022.12030



Review Article